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ToF Sensor Simulation


Simulated Time-of-Flight (ToF) sensor data is useful in a variety of scenarios, including the evaluation of range data processing algorithms, the testing of new sensor layouts that have not been built yet, and the creation of Ground Truth data for verification purposes.

In this project, we focus on efficient simulation of sensor data frame series for dynamic scenes. For this purpose, we use rasterization techniques that allow us to leverage the computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs).

The simulated data realistically reproduces typical sensor data properties such as flying pixels, motion artifacts, and noise behavior. This allows for a wide range of applications. In addition to the default depth images, the simulator can produce intermediate results that some sensors provide, e.g.. the four phase images of PMD sensors.

Source code for our simulator is available at the CamSim project, which supersedes the older PMDSim project.

Measured near-infrared BRDFs for evaluation purposes can be found here.

This project was partially funded by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMB+F), project number V3DDS001, and by the German Research Foundation (DFG), grant Ko-2960-12/1.



Articles/Journal Papers

[bib] - D. Bulczak, M. Lambers, A. Kolb - Quantified, Interactive Simulation of AMCW ToF Camera Including Multipath Effects
In Sensors, 18(1), 2018, pages DOI: 10.3390/s18010013 - [pdf]

Conference Papers

[bib] - M. Lambers, H. Sommerhoff, A. Kolb - Realistic Lens Distortion Rendering
In Proc. Int. Conf. in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision (WSCG), 2018, pages 83 - [pdf]


Articles/Journal Papers

[bib] - M. Lambers, S. Hoberg, A. Kolb - Simulation of Time-of-Flight Sensors for Evaluation of Chip Layout Variants
In IEEE Sensors Journal, 15(7), 2015, pages 4019-4026 - [pdf]


Articles/Journal Papers

[bib] - M. Keller, A. Kolb - Real-time Simulation of Time-Of-Flight Sensors
In J. Simulation Practice and Theory, 17, 2009, pages 967-978 - [pdf]


Conference Papers

[bib] - Maik Keller, Jens Orthmann, Andreas Kolb, Valerij Peters - A Simulation Framework for Time-Of-Flight Sensors
In Proc. of the Int. IEEE Symp. on Signals, Circuits & Systems (ISSCS), 1, 2007, pages 125 - 128 - [pdf]