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ToF Calibration


A growing number of modern applications such as position determination, object recognition and collision prevention depend on accurate scene analysis. The estimation of an object’s distance relative to an observers position by image analysis or laser scan techniques is thereby still the most time-consuming and expansive part.
A lower-priced and much faster alternative is the distance measurement with modulated, coherent infrared light based on the Photo Mixing Detector (PMD) technique. As this approach is a rather new and unexplored method, proper calibration techniques have not been widely investigated yet.
This research direction focuses on the design and evaluation of proper calibration models for the very complex and lightly explored distance mapping process of the PMD, which includes:

  • intrinsic and extrinsic calibration
  • enhancement of distance accuracy

This research project is partially funded by grant KO-2960-5/1,2 from the German Research Foundation (DFG).



Book Chapters

[bib] - A. Kolb, F. Pece - Range Imaging
In Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality, AK Peters / CRC Press, 2015, pages 51 - 64


Articles/Journal Papers

[bib] - T. Hoegg, D. Lefloch, A. Kolb - Time-of-Flight Camera Based 3D Point Cloud Reconstruction of a Car
In Computers in Industry (3D Imaging), 64(9), 2013, pages 1099 - 1144 - [pdf]

Book Chapters

[bib] - R. Nair, S. Meister, M. Lambers, M. Balda, H. Hoffmann, A. Kolb, D. Kondermann, B. Jähne - Ground Truth for Evaluating Time of Flight Imaging
In Time-of-Flight and Depth Imaging. Sensors, Algorithms, and Applications, Springer, 2013, pages 52-74

Book Chapters

[bib] - D. Lefloch, R. Nair, F. Lenzen, H. Schaefer, L. Streeter, M. J. Cree, R. Koch, A. Kolb - Technical Foundation and Calibration Methods for Time-of-Flight Cameras
In Time-of-Flight and Depth Imaging. Sensors, Algorithms, and Applications, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013, pages 3-24 - [pdf]


Conference Papers

[bib] - M. Lindner, A. Kolb, T. Ringbeck - New Insights into the Calibration of TOF Sensors
In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), Workshop on ToF Camera based Computer Vision (TOF-CV), 2008, pages 1-5 - [pdf]


Conference Papers

[bib] - M. Lindner, A. Kolb - Calibration of the intensity-related distance error of the PMD TOF-Camera
In SPIE: Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XXV, 6764, 2007, pages 6764-35 - [pdf]


Conference Papers

[bib] - Marvin Lindner, Andreas Kolb - Lateral and Depth Calibration of PMD-Distance Sensors
In Advances in Visual Computing, Springer, 2, 2006, pages 524-533 - [pdf]